HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Tue, 01 Dec 2020 11:12:01 GMT 大胸美女直播

水性涂料未来会成为儿童房、家具产品主流用漆

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 统计局:8月一二三线城市商品住宅销售价格稳中有涨 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

红木家具涨价潮或顺延至相关概念股

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Song “Embrace Happiness”(Kelly Chen)
他不像多数脱离男子组合单飞的歌手那样,听上去从来都不会像是迫切地想要得到重视。他从未丢掉最初为单向乐队带去的那种热情洋溢和神气十足,所以试着去习惯他,你会从他那里听到更多动听的歌曲。
n. 决定,决策
2.The Fresh Prince of Bel Air was Almost Bankrupt
8) Let Me Think About That: Yeah, it sounds like a cop out. And it is…sometimes. Fact is, we don’t always have the authority or expertise to make decisions. This phrase buys you time and breathing space. Then, set a date and time for follow up so the other person knows you’re taking him serious.
日前,美国民主党候选人希拉里·克林顿承诺,如果她在总统竞选中获胜,那么她的内阁将有半数成员是女性。
格里芬高中时代的样子与现今相差无几,原因是他离开高中才四年。我们能想象得出,暴力美学的格里芬在NBA里再锻炼上一两年年,他会变得更“怪兽”。

Gitanjali Rao was selected from 10 finalists who had spent three months collaborating with scientists to develop their ideas.
14. Google Calendar
Banks just cannot afford to keep up. At Goldman Sachs, for example, net revenues have dropped about a third since 2009, beaten down by structural shifts in trading and new rules crimping risk-taking. The bank tries to keep its pay ratio stable, so that means smaller total packages for the typical employee.
adj. 有毒的
《寻梦环游记》

Footnotes

  • 5月房价上涨城市增至48个 楼市难言全面回暖
  • [j?t]

举例来说,新浪微博就一直提供推特所不具备的一些功能,尤其是评论功能,让众多用户得以在别人发表的微博下发表自己的见解。拥有逾7亿用户的腾讯QQ即时信息服务也有众多附加功能,比如可以让用户改换形象的“皮肤”,同时QQ还是腾讯为其他产品和服务做广告的渠道。新浪拒绝置评。
An oversight model drawing on random inspections by randomly selected law enforcement officers or inspectors and requiring the prompt release of results
《患难与共》(Togetherness),HBO,1月11日播出。HBO台的周日晚间喜剧组合中已经有了20出头的纽约女人(《都市女孩》[Girls]第四季第一集将在同一天晚上播出),还有快到30岁的旧金山男同性恋(《寻》[Looking]也在当天开播第二季)。现在又来了30多岁的洛杉矶异性恋者们。这部有点阴郁的半小时喜剧来自杰伊(Jay)和马克·杜普拉斯(Mark Duplass),兄弟俩曾经合拍过《肥大的椅子》(The Puffy Chair)和《纸袋头》(Baghead)等诡异的电影。马克·杜普拉斯和梅兰妮·林斯基(Melanie Lynskey)饰演一对夫妻,和杜普拉斯最好的朋友(史蒂夫·齐西斯[Steve Zissis]饰演)与林斯基的姊妹(阿曼达·皮特[Amanda Peet]饰)合住一栋房子。
['sep?reit]
7. Pemuteran, Indonesia-Bali's pemeturan has sites for scuba diving among coral-covered Buddha statues, while ground-level offerings include beachfront resorts and restaurants.
1. The 2012 Ig nobel Psychology Prize

通知来了才知道租的是违规房

References

View Abstract